Thus, the deviance is defined in sociology as deviant behavior, the activity of the person (group of people) which is not meeting the standards (samples) of behavior, social expectations which developed in this society.
Today this problem gained special sharpness in our country where all spheres of public life undergo serious changes, there is a devaluation of former standards of behavior. The mismatch between the expected and real increases intensity in society and readiness of the person to change model of the behavior, to go beyond the developed norm. In the conditions of a critical social and economic situation essential changes undergo also norms. Cultural limiters are often switched-off, all system of social control weakens.
G. A. Avanesov gives broader treatment of definition of deviation:" It is necessary to understand the actions which are not meeting the standards and types set by society" 3 as deviant behavior that is it is about violation of any social norms.
Socialization is a process of integration of the individual into society, in various types of social communities by means of assimilation of elements of culture, social norms and values on the basis of which socially significant lines of the personality are formed by it. During this process the individual from the baby turns into the human person with a complex of installations and values, the purposes and intentions, with is unique individual vision of the world.
As professor of sociology of the Californian university writes to Berkeley (SSh Neill Joseph Smelzer, deviation hardly gives in to definition that is connected with uncertainty and variety of behavioural expectations. Deviation leads isolation, treatment, correction or other punishment. Smelzer allocates three main components of deviation:
At all times society tried to suppress, eliminate undesirable forms of human activity and their carriers. Methods and means were defined by the social and economic relations, public consciousness, interests of ruling elite. Problems of social "evil" always attracted interest of scientists.
"Social norm, - Ya. I. Gilinsky notes, - defines the limit which historically developed in concrete society, a measure, an interval admissible (legal or obligatory) behavior, activity of people, social groups, the social organizations".
In a subsoil of sociology the special sociological theory - sociology deviant (from Latin deviatio - evasion of behavior arose and created. The French scientist Emil Durkheim (1858-191 - the founder of the French sociological school stood at the origins of sociology of the deviant (deviating) behavior. It put forward concept of a social anomy, having defined it as "a condition of society when the old norms and values do not correspond to the real relations any more and new were not approved yet".
At the level of individual behavior as the most general reason of deviation "social disorder" as result of discrepancy of objective properties of the individual, including his inclinations, abilities, and also the properties acquired in the course of socialization to requirements of the taken position in system of the public relations serves. The position can be "lower" (philosopher stoker) or "above" (mediocrity in a management kresl of the objective opportunities; the individual can appear out of official structure of society (the tramp, the parasite).